You come home after a long and tiring day at work, feeling awful with a sore throat. Then you check your temperature, and after a few minutes, you lose it by hearing the word ‘fever.’ This is how it starts for most people.
Fever is a common condition where the body temperature is higher than the average temperature. It is also known as high temperature, hyperthermia, or pyrexia. Fever is usually an indication that your body is working towards keeping you healthy from an infection.
While mostly fever goes away after a few days with regular doses of antibiotics, there might be another way to get rid of it. Read on to know if CBD can help you with fever.
What do we Know About Fever?
To get treatment and proper monitoring, it is essential to recognize a fever. The average body temperature is typically 98.6°F. However, it can vary from person to person. The average body temperature also fluctuates depending on the time of day. Usually, it is lower in the morning and high in the late afternoon and evening.
Some other factors, such as menstrual cycle or heavy exercise, can also affect body temperature. You can get fever due to virus, bacterial infection, certain medications such as antibiotics, heat exhaustion, and some immunizations. Sometimes, it can be challenging to know the exact cause of fever.
To check body temperature, you can use a rectal, oral, or axillary thermometer. While using an oral thermometer, place it under the tongue for 3 minutes. You can use an oral thermometer for an axillary, or armpit reading.
Can I Prevent a Fever?
Prevention of fever is only possible to the extent that the specific cause of fever is prevented. Fevers are usually caused due to infections. The best way to avoid a fever is to avoid sources of contamination and maintain good hygiene practices. Some ways to do the same are –
- Maintain proper hygiene and wash hands frequently
- Avoid meeting with sick people
- Ensure that all immunizations are up to date
What are CBDs?
There is no dubiety that CBD is the wellness product of the contemporary world. If you live in a state when CBD is legal, you know well that it suddenly went from being sort of around to everywhere all at once.
Coffee shops are selling CBD lattes, beauty companies are planning to release lotions with CBDs in their formulas, and spas offer CBD facials. Almost everyone from an anxious coworker to an arthritis-suffering man wants to get their hands on CBD.
For those who still don’t know, cannabidiol is a naturally occurring compound found in the resinous flower of cannabis. This plant possesses a rich history as a medicine dating back to thousands of years. Today, scientists and doctors across the globe are looking into the therapeutic properties of CBD.
What do We Currently Know About CBD for Fever?
Fever is caused when an area in your brain known as the hypothalamus shifts the set point of your normal body temperature upward.
Many people are shifting towards CBD for various conditions, one of them being fever. CBD might be able to help you with the above-mentioned symptoms, thereby helping you with fever. Although there is not much evidence about CBD being antipyretic, it is able to treat fever as a symptom for various conditions.
In a study, two patients suffering from Mediterranean fever went under cannabis treatment. Doctors found out a remarkable improvement in the condition of both the patients and the severity of attacks reduced.
As per another case study, a 23-year-old patient suffering from FMF for 15 years wasn’t able to notice any significant improvements despite treatment with 3-4 recommended tablets per day. While some medicines improved ankle pain, there was not much effect on fever. It was only after smoking medical cannabis that he found significant improvement in chest pain and only had a mild fever during attacks.
CBD is also used to treat fever as a symptom of conditions such as Dravet Syndrome. A severe kind of epilepsy, Dravet Syndrome is characterized by seizures that are hard to control with anti-epilepsy medicines. The FDA approved Epidiolex, which is a cannabis derivative to treat the condition.
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CBD for Other Related Conditions
Besides fever, CBD can help you with other related conditions too. But this mostly revolves around CBD’s ability to weaken or strengthen the immune system. Well, CBD can actually do both, and it totally depends on a person’s autoimmune condition.
It is possible that your immune system may overreact to some non-threatening internal or threatening external events which leads to an attack against healthy cells in your body. This is usually an attempt to get rid of the threat. It would be great to choose a high-quality CBD product if you suffer from an autoimmune disease.
According to another research, CBD has anti-inflammatory properties, that help you with body aches and pains. CBD is also capable of relaxing your body and helping you with insomnia. Moreover, as cannabis has the ability to suppress the immune system, it is very likely to have fever-reducing properties.
Since CBD has so many health benefits, doctors and researchers have carried out various studies and are working on many more. These studies are expected to bring a positive response about CBD.
The major focus remains on CBD for strengthening a person’s immune system. This is purely based on the fact that a healthy immune system can help combat infections that result in fever.
Dosage for CBD
It is relatively easy to derive benefits from cannabis. A puff or two of CBD can do the trick for most people. Smoking marijuana, however, is not the only way to seek therapeutic benefits. There are various other ways to experience the medical benefits of cannabis.
In recent times, the advent of CBD concentrates, non-intoxicating cannabidiol products, and innovative, smokeless products have transformed the way people consume marijuana. But dosing cannabis is a bit of a challenge. While some people find small doses effective, others have to use incredibly high doses.
Micro-dosing is best for people who wish to avail the benefits of cannabis without feeling high. If you have no experience with CBD, it is better to start with small doses. Take the same dose for some days and observe the effects. If you feel the need to adjust the ratio, do it, but don’t overdo it.
With CBD, less is more often goes well. Although there are no severe side effects and reactions to CBD, excessive amounts could be less beneficial therapeutically. Cannabis is available in concentrated oil form, tincture, edible gel, infused sublingual sprays, topical salves, and other products.
How to Buy CBD for Fever?
It is best to get your products from a licensed dispensary if CBD is legal in your state. If not, you can always count on online storefronts or actual storefronts in some areas. But choosing among so many CBD brands can be overwhelming. Many CBD products come mislabelled.
According to a study, 69% of 85 products surveyed had an incorrect CBD or THC on the product label. Moreover, there are high chances that the product you receive has discrepancies. Some CBD brands mislead users with products containing CBD isolate instead of whole plant CBD-rich extract.
Tips for Buying CBD for Fever
- It is in your best interest to look for products made by companies in states that have legalized medical and recreational use of cannabis.
- Always opt for full-spectrum CBD rich oil extracts instead of isolate, distillate, or products labeled “pure CBD” or “no THC.”
- Instead of looking for total cannabinoid content, search for labels that indicate CBD and THC amount per serving.
- Steer clear of companies that make explicit health claims of CBD.
- Avoid poor quality CBD gummies made with artificial colors and corn syrup.
- Do not hesitate to contact CBD companies directly for your queries.
Fever is usually a sign that something out of the ordinary is going on in your body. It is not a sign of concern until it reaches 103 F. When talking about infants and toddlers, slightly elevated temperature signals a serious infection.
Although over-the-counter medicines can help to treat fever, it is not enough for some people. With CBD becoming popular in the wellness industry, many wonder if it can help with conditions like a fever. As mentioned above, CBD might help in treating fevers caused by pathogens.
Thus, while buying CBD oil, it is vital to keep your health conditions in mind. Also, make sure of your health goals and the exact purpose of buying CBD. This technique will benefit you in deciding the best type of CBD oil to have. We also recommend you to consult a doctor experienced in CBD use for professional advice.
CBD for Gallbladder: What does the Science Say?
Gallbladder disease (GBD) is a common health concern that affects millions across the world.
According to the NHANES III, “a total of 20.5 million persons in the United States, 6.3 million men and 14.2 million women, aged 20–74 years, were estimated to have GBD”.
CBD addresses the symptoms of gallbladder problems that cause a lot of discomfort in the patients. But does it actually work? Is it even safe to use?
To understand all of this, we have compiled various studies and researches about CBD and its benefits for gallbladder problems. Read on!
What are Gallbladder Problems?
The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ present under the liver on the upper right section of the abdomen. It stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. This fluid is released into the small intestine for proper digestion of fats.
Gallstones or cholelithiasis is the most common gallbladder disease. They are hardened deposits of the bile in the gallbladder.
The size may vary from that of sand grain to a golf ball. The patient can develop one-to-many gallstones at the same time.
Gallstones mostly affect women above the age of 40. According to the Mayo Clinic, it may happen due to the following:
High cholesterol in the bile: When the liver produces more cholesterol than the bile can dissolve, the excess cholesterol forms crystals and then gallstones in the gallbladder.
High bilirubin in the bile: Bilirubin is a chemical that breaks down the RBCs in the body. The body produces excess bilirubin in conditions like liver cirrhosis, biliary tract infections. This leads to gallstone formation.
Inability to empty the bladder correctly: When your bladder doesn’t get empty correctly, the bile gets concentrated and eventually forms gallstones.
Types of Gallstones
Cholesterol gallstones: These stones are usually yellow in color. This is a more common type of gallstones that are formed due to undissolved cholesterol.
Pigment gallstones: Due to the excess bilirubin content, these gallstones are brown and black in color.
Other types of gallbladder diseases are:
Cholecystitis, Common bile duct infection, common bile duct stones (choledocholithiasis), gallbladder disease without stones, perforated gallbladder, abscess of the gallbladder, and many more.
Symptoms of Gallbladder Disease
Here are a few common symptoms one may experience:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Chronic diarrhea
Treatment for gallbladder Problems
Depending upon the type of problem, the treatments may include:
- over-the-counter pain medications, like ibuprofen
- prescription pain medications, like hydrocodone and morphine
- surgery to remove gallstones
- Cholecystectomy: surgery to remove the whole gallbladder
- lithotripsy, a medical procedure where shock waves are used to break stones in the gallbladder and other organs
Can CBD help with Gallbladder Pain and Inflammation?
Cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive component of the Cannabis Sativa plant. Extracted from the hemp plant, CBD has several therapeutic and health benefits. Pure CBD products don’t contain tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intoxicating compound
CBD provides relief in gallbladder problems. It also helps in alleviating gastrointestinal symptoms.
People are resorting to cannabinoids as a natural alternative to usual pain medications. This is because drugs like NSAIDs and prescription medicines can have long-term adverse side effects.
CBD is arising as a potential treatment for gallbladder problems due to its interaction with the endocannabinoid system (ECS).
The ECS is responsible for regulation of pain, sleep, memory, mood, immune response, and other functions in the body.
CBD works to maintain homeostasis (balance) in the body to inhibit the pain sensation, a major symptom of gallbladder diseases.
A 2013 review talked about the role of the endocannabinoid system and the phytocannabinoids in chronic pain management.
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How does CBD help with Gallbladder problems?
According to a 2017 study, “CBD is mostly devoid of adverse psychoactive effects and possesses anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-anxiety, antiemetic, immune-modulating, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotectant, and anti-tumorigenic properties”.
As mentioned above, CBD not only aids in gallbladder problems but also takes care of the gastrointestinal issues. It also supports gut health and relieves digestive issues.
It works to protect the intestinal cells and gallbladder from chemical or inflammatory damage and inhibits the development of harmful diseases.
Based on the studies and researches available, here’s how CBD can help the patients with Gallbladder and GI issues:
Reduces Inflammation and Pain
Inflammation is the body’s natural response to infection or injury. Chronic inflammation is a common symptom in people suffering from the gallbladder and gastrointestinal issues.
CBD has anti-inflammatory properties, and it works through various receptors, fatty acids, hormones, and cell-signaling proteins to reduce the discomfort in the patient.
Pain is another major symptom of gallbladder disease. The pain can be dull, achy, sharp, or sudden depending on the cause. It affects the abdomen to the lower back.
CBD has analgesic (pain-relieving) properties that can decrease discomfort in the patients
A 2004 study revealed that CBD interacts with the vanilloid TRPV1 receptor to produce its anti-hyperalgesic effect. It was used to treat acute inflammation in a rat model.
CBD has antinociceptive effects through which it can prevent the detection of painful signals by the sensory neurons. That’s why its effects last longer than the usual painkillers.
Heals Leaky Gut
Leaky gut or intestinal permeability is a digestive condition that affects the lining of the intestines. Here the bacteria and toxins leak from the intestinal walls into the bloodstream.
The common symptoms of leaky gut are inflammation, abdominal pain, gas, bloating, etc. It can further lead to gallstones and gastrointestinal diseases.
CBD may help in relieving this condition. A 2017 study concluded that CBD can “restore the intestinal barrier integrity, through the involvement of the CB1 receptor”.
A 2012 study showed that “phytocannabinoids have therapeutic potential for reversing the disordered intestinal permeability associated with inflammation”.
In another 2019 study, it was revealed that CBD when taken with palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) can reduce intestinal hyper-permeability (leaky gut) induced by inflammation. This is also beneficial for people with Irritable bowel syndrome.
The endocannabinoid system also regulates the metabolic function in the body. It is made up of metabolic enzymes that help in energy storage, transportation of nutrients, and insulin sensitivity.
A 2012 study investigated the association between metabolic syndrome and the development of gallstone disease (GSD). It concluded that more the components of metabolic syndrome are there in the body, higher is the prevalence of GSD.
The use of CBD has shown significant development in treating metabolic disorders like diabetes. However, we require specific studies to prove their use for gallstones.
CBD turns the white fat cells into brown to prevent the risk of obesity. This further leads to increased lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. It, therefore, improves the user’s metabolic health.
Promotes Brain Health
The discomfort in your gut also affects brain function. A 2019 study talks about this gut-brain connection.
The inflammation in the gut usually causes brain fog, lack of concentration, and even anxiety. It also leads to inflammation in the brain which could develop into neurodegenerative disease.
A 2018 review revealed that CBD can attenuate acute autonomic responses induced by stress by activating the 5HT1A (serotonin) receptors.
Also, it concluded that CBD can show neuroprotective effects by activating the adenosine receptors. It can enhance the signaling of adenosine to mediate immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects in the body.
Pros and Cons of using CBD to Treat Your Gallbladder Problems
Before using CBD for your gallbladder condition, let’s understand its pros and cons:
- CBD helps alleviate pain and inflammation in the gallbladder.
- Helps heal leaky gut and promotes overall health by taking care of metabolism and the brain.
- According to the World Health Organization (WHO), “CBD is
generally well-tolerated with a good safety profile”.
- The patient cannot develop tolerance or get addicted to CBD. It delivers therapeutic benefits without making them ‘high’.
- Has relatively milder side effects than medication drugs.
- There are limited studies related to CBD’s efficacy for gallbladder problems.
- There’s no standard CBD dosage prescribed for its usage for gallbladder.
- The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) doesn’t regulate CBD except in the case of epilepsy.
- Due to the lack of regulation and standardization, low quality, mislabelled CBD products are being sold in the market that can be harmful.
CBD and Alternative Treatments for Gallbladder Problems
Many patients go for complementary and alternative therapies (CAM) to relieve gallbladder pain. They can also prevent the further development of gallbladder diseases. This should be done in supervision of a healthcare practitioner. Here’s what all it includes:
Maintain a healthy weight: Being obese puts you at risk for various gallbladder problems. It is important to maintain a healthy weight, reducing your calorie intake, and indulging regular exercise.
CBD also helps in improving your metabolism and reduces the risk of gallbladder diseases related to metabolic syndrome.
Dietary changes: To lower the plasma insulin levels, it is important to make significant changes in your diet. Eliminate fatty foods and refined carbohydrates from your diet.
Try having unrefined carbs like whole grains, legumes, and starchy vegetables.
Like CBD, these foods will help in reducing inflammation as they get digested slowly and ensure a steady dosage of sugar in your body.
Herbal medicine: You can also rely on turmeric, bupleurum, Oregon grape, and coin grass to reduce the painful inflammation caused by the gallbladder diseases. It may also relieve liver congestion.
CBD is also a herbal compound that comes from plants and treats the health ailments naturally. You can easily add it to your wellness routine.
How to take CBD for Gallbladder?
CBD is available in many forms in the market for you to choose from. Take a look:
The most common way to take Cannabidiol is in the form of oil tincture. As oils are molecular carriers, they hold more cannabinoids than other CBD products. They easily get absorbed into the bloodstream to show desired effects.
How to use: The best way to take CBD oil is sublingually. You need to put it under the tongue and let it sit for 90 seconds and then swallow it. The effects will appear in 15 to 45 minutes.
You can also have CBD oil in the form of capsules, edibles like gummies, baked goods.
Another way to use CBD is through CBD topicals. This includes ointments, lotions, and salves. These topicals get absorbed in the skin to provide relief in the affected areas.
How to use: Apply the cream generously on the upper abdomen or back area at the site of the pain. You can reapply it after 30-60 minutes until the pain reduces.
Pro tip: Always check the ingredients of the topical to check if you are not allergic to any of them.
CBD Dosage for Gallbladder Problems
Unfortunately, there is no recommended dosage of CBD for gallbladder diseases. It may depend on your weight, metabolism, cause of the pain, and its severity.
Finding the right dosage is a process of trials and experimentation.
You can either follow the instructions on the package or start with the lowest dosage.
Increase the dosage as required. Once you get the desired effects, stick to that dosage.
For further assistance, consult your doctor.
Side Effects of CBD
Although you cannot develop a tolerance or addiction towards CBD, it is important you do not overindulge in it.
It may cause some mild side-effects, like:
- Dry mouth
If the side effects become too severe, we advise you to discontinue the use.
Conclusion: Should you try?
Although there is a long way to go for CBD as a potential gallbladder treatment, the present researches spark a promising light of hope. It may become a natural alternative to the drugs currently being used.
As CBD can be procured without any proper prescription, the risk of its side effects also increases. It may even interact with your over the counter (OTC) medications.
Therefore, we recommend you to consult your healthcare provider before taking CBD for any gallbladder problem. They shall let you know if it is safe for you to use given your medical state.
We hope we helped you understand the efficacy of CBD for gallbladder problems. Stay healthy, stay fit!
CBD for Leishmaniasis: What does the Science Say?
Leishmaniasis is a highly prevalent protozoan infectious disease. It is found in nearly 89 countries around the world. This disease is usually seen in Africa, Asia, America, and the Mediterranean region.
The disease is transmitted through a female sandfly. According to a study named Leishmaniasis- A review, around 12 to 15 million people around the world have been infected with the disease. About 1.5 to 2 million new cases occur every year, and nearly 70,000 people fall prey to this disease.
Nearly 350 million people around the world are at risk of acquiring this disease.
Leishmaniasis can start as a small lesion, but if left untreated, the disease can lead to dire consequences. Treating the disease can be quite tricky. Prevention and early detection are extremely important to avoid discomfort and unwanted consequences.
CBD for Leishmaniasis: How it works?
There is a recent growing interest in the role of CBD or Cannabidiol in treating diseases like Leishmaniasis. Researchers are studying whether cannabinoids, terpenes, and other components present in CBD can work effectively in treating Leishmaniasis.
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What is Leishmaniasis?
To understand how CBD can provide relief from Leishmaniasis, let us first understand what the disease is and how it can affect us.
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease. A parasite named Leishmania is responsible for causing this disease. According to the CDC, an infected Phlebotomine fly acts as a carrier of this disease and is mostly found in tropical and sub-tropical environments.
When an infected fly bites a human being, it transfers the parasite into the human being causing Leishmaniasis.
According to the WHO, nearly 20 different kinds of Leishmania species exist and can cause different diseases, all grouped under Leishmaniasis.
Some people can have the Leishmania parasite in their body and still do not exhibit any symptoms. Leishmaniasis occurs when you start exhibiting the disease-related symptoms.
Which Population is Most Susceptible to Leishmaniasis?
The CDC classifies Leishmaniasis as a Neglected Tropical Disease or an NTD. This means that the disease is native to poor countries where medical care is limited and the disease can play havoc with the people’s health and lives.
This disease is most commonly found in tropical and sub-tropical countries with a high prevalence of the female Phhebotomine flies. These flies act as carriers of the parasite and transfer the disease to human beings by bite.
The top countries affected by various Leishmaniases include Afghanistan, Algeria, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Iraq, Kenya, Pakistan, Somalia, etc.
Travelers to these countries should be aware of the risk factors and take the necessary precautions while traveling.
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease, meaning that the parasite causing this disease survives in another organism, in this case, sand fly before reaching human beings.
Various animals like rats, dogs, cattle, etc act as host to these sand-flies but the spread of this disease mainly occurs through sand-flies.
Once a person gets affected by Leishman’s disease, the person-to-person transmission gets easier.
The worst part about Leishmaniasis is that the sandflies responsible for carrying this disease are extremely tiny and are often not visible. Their bite is painless too.
Often people may not recognize that they got bit by the fly. As a result, identifying the disease on time becomes difficult. Administering treatment also takes time.
For this reason, Leishmaniasis is a tricky disease needing a lot of care and attention.
Types of Leishmaniasis:
WHO classifies Leishmaniasis into three main categories:
- Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
- Visceral Leishmaniasis or Kala Azar
- Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis
1. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis:
As the name suggests, this type of Leishmaniasis occurs on the skin. It is the most commonly occurring form of the disease.
According to the PostGraduate Medical Journal, this disease is characterized by the formation of lesions on the skin. A small lesion forms in the area of the fly bite. The lesion increases in size gradually and forms into an ulcer.
Such lesions can take anywhere between 3 to 18 months to heal. The incubation period can range between 2 to 8 weeks.
In a person with a healthy immune system, the lesions may disappear on their own. But sometimes the lesions do not disappear, leading to life-threatening conditions.
In some people, cutaneous Leishmaniasis can heal and stay dormant. In later years, it takes the form of a much more potent form of Leishmaniasis called the Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis.
The US National Library of Medicine lists the following symptoms of cutaneous Leishmaniasis.
- Difficulty in breathing
- Lesions on the skin which later turn into ulcers.
2. Visceral Leishmaniasis:
This kind of Leishmaniasis is also known as Kala Azar. Visceral Leishmaniasis is the most severe form of Leishmaniasis. If left untreated in time, this disease can turn fatal.
In Visceral Leishmaniasis, the parasite travels to the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, affecting those organs badly.
Symptoms include fever, weight loss, Lymphadenopathy – a disease of the lymph nodes, pancytopenia – low count of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, etc.
Skin pigmentation can also occur as a part of this disease. This pigmentation gives the name Kala Azar to this disease.
The US National Library of Medicine lists the following symptoms of visceral Leishmaniasis.
In kids, the symptoms include:
Other symptoms in kids and adults include:
- Abdominal discomfort.
- Loss of weight
- Loss of hair.
- Formation of scales on the skin.
- Loss of skin pigmentation, leading to dark or ashen skin
- Night sweats.
- Infrequent fevers that last weeks.
Life-threatening symptoms include:
- Weight loss
- Swelling of the liver and spleen.
3. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis:
According to the PostGraduate Medical Journal, this category of Leishmaniasis usually occurs after the initial cutaneous leishmaniasis has healed.
The incubation period for this disease is about 1 to 3 months. In some cases, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis can occur several months after cutaneous leishmaniasis is cured.
This is a rarely occurring disease among all the three categories of Leishmaniases.
Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis affects mucosal glands present in your oral cavity, nose, or pharynx. If left untreated, this disease causes partial or complete destruction to the mucosal glands.
The US National Library of Medicine lists the following symptoms of Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis.
- Ulcers and sores in the mouth, nose, throat, tongue, gum, inner nose, etc.
- Stuffy nose, runny nose and bleeding in the nose
- Difficulty in swallowing.
Long term damaging complications of Leishmaniasis include:
- Bleeding or hemorrhage
- Disfigurement of the face
- Damage to the immunity system
Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis doesn’t heal on its own and requires extensive medical treatment and interventions.
Leishmaniases are of various kinds. Sometimes a person can get affected with different strains at a time. Timely diagnosis and treatment are essential to avoid long-term complications and reduce the healing time.
Different techniques are used to diagnose different kinds of Leishmaniases.
Leishmaniasis, in general, is diagnosed by conducting tests on tissue specimens. These specimen can be collected from:
- Skin lesions – for cutaneous Leishmaniasis
- Bone marrow – for visceral Leishmaniasis
- Serologic testing provides a support testing option for visceral Leishmaniasis.
So, how is Leishmaniasis treated? Limited treatment options are available for Leishmaniasis . According to the WHO, various factors like the type of the disease, the species type, the pathology, and geographic location should be considered before drawing up a treatment plan.
More importantly, the affected patient should have a strong immune system to fight the disease. Medicines do not always remove the parasite completely from the body. if the patient isn’t strong enough, relapses can occur.
How can CBD help with treating Leishmaniasis?
Before understanding how CBD can work on Leishmaniasis, let us first learn the basic composition of CBD.
CBD or cannabidiol is an extract of the hemp plant, also known as Cannabis sativa. This plant has been used extensively in traditional medicine. Today, the extract of the hemp plant can treat a variety of conditions like anxiety, depression, loss of appetite, pain, and inflammation, etc.
What causes the cannabis plant extract to have so many therapeutic qualities?
Most of the properties can be attributed to the presence of compounds like cannabinoids and terpenes.
Full-spectrum CBD extracted from the cannabis plant retains all its cannabinoids and terpenes and proves an effective natural healer.
Cannabinoids have chemical compounds similar to the body’s internal cannabinoid system or ECS. ECS is responsible for controlling and maintaining various system functions and body mechanisms.
The ECS system regulates systems such as the cardiovascular system, immune system, nervous system
The Cannabinoids present in CBD work in tandem with the ECS system. This is the reason for most of the healing properties of CBD.
Another important component of the full spectrum CBD is the terpenes. Terpenes are similar to essential oils. These are the aromatic compounds present in the cannabis plant.
Terpenes render the aroma and flavor to the cannabis plant.
Cannabinoids and terpenes together render what is called the “Synergistic effect” to the full-spectrum CBD.
This means that the combined effect is larger when compared to the individual component effects of the CBD. As far as Leishmaniasis is concerned, pinene is an extremely important terpene present in broad-spectrum CBD.
Pinene is present in two forms- Alpha-Pinene and Beta-Pinene.
Both these pinene forms exhibit a range of therapeutic properties according to a study by Biomolecules published in MDPI.
The Pinene terpenes present in CBD acts as:
A study published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology stated that the essential oil obtained from Syzygium cumini, also known as the Skeels essential oil exhibited anti-leishmania activity in vitro.
Syzygium cumini contains alpha-pinene as one of its major components. Researchers attribute the anti-leishmania activity to the presence of pinene.
Let us take a broad look at the symptoms of Leishmaniasis. Key symptoms include:
- Formation of ulcers and lesions on the skin
- Ulcers and lesions in the oral cavity, throat, nasal cavity
- Weight loss
- Difficulty in swallowing
- Difficulty in breathing
Since CBD also contains pinene, it exhibits a range of properties including anti-leishmania, antimicrobial, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic.
All these properties make CBD excellent for treating Leishmaniasis.
- Anti-leishmaniasis and antimalarial activity of CBD help in fighting Leishmaniasis.
- The pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties of CBD help in relieving pain at the site of the ulcers.
- Analgesic activity of CBD helps in relieving fever and pain.
- CBD helps in improving appetite. As a result, the patient starts feeling hungry and eats better. this will help fight symptoms such as weight loss.
- Anti-inflammatory properties reduce lesions in the oral cavity, lungs, etc, making it easier for the patient to eat and breathe.
- In effect, CBD provides a multi-way relief to the patient, providing temporary relief to the patient while also helping the patient heal.
How can Leishmaniasis be prevented?
As of now, there is no vaccination or prophylaxis medication to prevent Leishmaniasis.
Preventive measures are the key to protection from this disease. If you stay away from areas where the prevalence of this disease is high, or you are traveling to one of these areas, the following precautions are extremely essential:
- Stay fully covered at all times. Wear clothing that covers your entire body, like wearing full-sleeved tops and pajamas or full-pants.
- Spray your rooms with insect repellants.
- Have an insect-repellant handy. A repellent with DEET is preferable for complete protection. Spray the repellent on all the exposed body parts, and on your pants and sleeves.
- Sandflies cannot fly at heights. You can sleep on the top floors to avoid being bitten by these flies.
- Avoid going out when the flies are most active.
- Use air-conditioners or fans in your rooms. Cover all doors and windows with mesh so that the flies can’t enter.
- Use bed nets. Make sure that the nets completely cover the bed with no gaps, so that the flies can’t enter your sleeping area.
To sum up, Leishmaniasis is a debilitating disease and can spread quite fast. Treatment options are limited and prevention is always better than cure.
Terpenes and Cannabinoids present in full-spectrum CBD can provide relief from the various symptoms of Leishmaniasis. Though research is still pending in certain aspects, CBD can form an excellent source for treating Leishmaniasis.
CBD for Glaucoma: Can it Help You?
Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness in the US. According to the Global Burden of Diseases study 2010, nearly 2.1 million people were blind while 4.2 million were visually impaired due to Glaucoma. These numbers were projected to increase widely over the next couple of decades.
This eye condition occurs due to the damage to the optic nerve. The most common reason for glaucoma is fluid build-up in the front part of the eye. This fluid build-up increases pressure on the eye, damaging the optic nerve, and results in permanent damage to the vision.
Glaucoma can occur at any age but is common in adults over the age of 40. This condition can lead to permanent vision loss.
What we know about CBD and Glaucoma?
The role of CBD in reducing or treating Glaucoma is unclear. With conflicting research and studies showing different results, further clinical trials will help establish the role of CBD for glaucoma.
Let us first understand glaucoma and its effects on the patients suffering from the condition.
As mentioned earlier, glaucoma occurs due to damaged optic nerves. The optic nerve is the most essential organ responsible for vision. It works by sending signals to the brain in the form of images.
When the pressure in your eye, also known as the intraocular pressure, increases because of fluid build-up, it starts affecting the optic nerve.
This nerve damage results in vision problems as it can no longer send signals to the brain. When this damage worsens, you will experience permanent blindness.
Glaucoma doesn’t show any signs in the early stages. This makes it difficult to detect and treat at the correct time. Unless you visit an ophthalmologist for regular check-ups, you won’t be able to identify this condition.
By the time the symptoms start showing, deterioration sets in. Ultimately, this condition results in permanent blindness.
Medications are available to lower intraocular pressure. But they can cause intolerable side effects such as burning, blurred vision, and tearing. Long term use can also reduce the efficacy of these drugs.
A study by the British Journal of Ophthalmology states that “..different cannabinoids, including cannabidiol, cannabigerol, endogenous cannabinoids, and some synthetic cannabinoids, can reduce the IOP when administered systemically and topically.” This feature along with cannabinoids’ neuroprotective properties can make CBD a good agent to treat Glaucoma.
The hemp plant contains over a hundred different cannabinoids, flavonoids, and terpenes. These compounds are responsible for most of the therapeutic properties of the hemp plant. Among the various cannabinoids, THC and CBD are of chief interest.
In 1971, a study on a small number of subjects conducted by Helper and Frank showed that smoking marijuana lowered the Intraocular Pressure or IOP by about 25 to 30%. The effect lasted for about 3 to 4 hours. The subjects reported side effects such as lesser tear production, changes in pupil size, tachycardia, etc.
Long term use of smoking marijuana has the possibility of developing tolerance. The reduction of the intraocular pressure seemed to be inversely related to the duration of marijuana smoking.
On the contrary, another study conducted by Dawson et al showed that marijuana users of 10 years or more and non-users showed a similar reduction in IOP after marijuana treatment.
Studies like the one published in the Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics show that cannabinoids like CBD and CBN were able to reduce the IOP.
Smoking cannabis can be unhealthy due to its various side effects. Therefore scientists have started looking for other safer and effective methods for administering CBD to reducing IOP, thus reducing the effects of Glaucoma.
Oral Administration of CBD for IOP in Glaucoma:
A study published in the Journal of Glaucoma studied the effects of oral administration of low doses of CBD and THC on intraocular pressure.
The findings were as follows:
- A single dosage of 5mg of THC could reduce the pressure temporarily. Most of the patients showed good levels of tolerance to the dosage.
- While the sublingual administration of 20mg CBD didn’t reduce IOP, a 40 mg dosage was able to slightly reduce the IOP.
Topical Administration of CBD for IOP in Glaucoma:
Topical application is one of the safer methods of administering CBD to maximize the results and minimize the side effects. Scientists applied the same principle to observe the effectiveness of CBD in reducing IOP in the form of eye drops.
One problem they encountered while conducting the experiments was that the cannabinoid extracts were lipophilic making them difficult to dissolve in water. As a result, administering them in the form of eye drops proved to be a challenge.
Since the surface of the eye is constantly moist due to tears, water solubility is extremely important for the eye drops to be effective.
With the administration of any eye drops, much of the solution goes waste due to lacrimal drainage. As a result, only about 5% of the dose reaches the intraocular tissue.
These factors were a challenge for scientists trying to test the topical administration of cannabinoids for glaucoma.
A study by Keith Green and Walter.M.Jay published in JAMA Ophthalmology employed 28 male volunteers who were administered THC that used mineral oil as the solvent. Most of these volunteers experienced side effects such as eye irritation, burning sensation, and swelling in the eyelids.
According to the studies published in the Journal of Current Eye Research and the Life Sciences journal, cyclodextrin, methylcellulose, and polyvinyl alcohol improve the aqua-solubility of cannabinoids, making them the best carriers for oral administration of CBD.
This study provides value for scientists and researchers working on the IOP-reducing properties of CBD through topical administration.
Neuroprotective properties of CBD for Glaucoma:
In Glaucoma, reducing the intraocular pressure by itself may not be enough to prevent vision loss.
A study on the neuroprotective effect of THC and CBD published in The American Journal of Pathology details the role of glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in glaucoma.
Glutamate is an important neurotransmitter. It is present in high concentrations in the retinal cells or the retinal ganglion cells. Certain conditions can cause glutamate to release in higher amounts. This excess release leads to the death of the retinal ganglion cells which in turn contributes to glaucoma.
The study explains the role of glutamate in causing the death of the retinal neurons due to the excess formation of peroxynitrite. THC and CBD may reduce the formation of peroxynitrite, thereby protecting the retinal neurons and the ganglion cells.
The neuroprotective properties of THC and CBD play a significant role in reducing the excess formation of glutamate. This happens due to the activation of the CB1 receptor which is a part of the body’s endocannabinoid system or ECS.
The ECS including the endocannabinoids and its receptors is present in the ocular tissues and the retina. The endocannabinoids are present throughout the eyes, the only exception being the lens.
The ECS system is responsible for maintaining various systems of the human body. The endocannabinoids and receptors together form a network with each of them being responsible for one or more systems and functions.
Through this network, the ECS system is responsible for maintaining coordination between various processes and systems for smooth body metabolism. In other words, the ECS system maintains homeostasis.
A disturbance in this homeostasis, usually due to an injury or inflammation, can disturb the endocannabinoid system and its functioning.
In such situations, other receptors and pathways may initiate the process of protecting the nerve cells from death.
By therapeutically modifying the ECS system, it may be possible to reduce nerve death, thereby improving the symptoms that occur due to glaucoma.
The neuroprotective properties of CBD in combination with its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties can make it an ideal candidate to curb the neuron damage and neuron death in glaucoma.
The THC cannabinoid can activate the CB1 and CB2 within the ECS system to trigger the neuroprotective properties, and thus may provide relief from glaucoma symptoms that occur due to cell death, and also restore vision to some extent.
Since THC is associated with certain unwanted symptoms, and due to its psychoactive effects, the therapeutic properties of CBD as a neuroprotective agent are under focus.
The neuroprotective properties of CBD may be due to its ability to activate certain signaling pathways. Besides, CBD also attached itself to the CB2 receptors which then triggers the neuroprotective properties, preventing nerve damage and death.
Both THC and CBD have shown protective action against retinal injury, strengthening their position as possible therapeutic candidates for Glaucoma.
Along with its neuroprotective properties, CBD also inhibits the degradation of certain cannabinoids that act as neuroprotectants. THC may play an additional role in activating certain neuroprotective pathways.
Antioxidant properties of CBD
We already know that elevated glutamate levels act as one of the risk factors for Glaucoma by initiating the death of the ganglion cells and nerves. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that such nerve death can be reduced with the presence of antioxidants.
Antioxidants work by reducing the production of peroxynitrite, the factor that is chiefly responsible for triggering the cell and nerve death.
CBD and THC have both shown potent antioxidant properties by protecting nerves from glutamate-induced death and oxidative stress as well.
Despite the growing evidence of CBD as an ideal therapeutic candidate for treating glaucoma, certain factors still put it in a jeopardy.
In most cases, CBD may not be able to act alone to deliver therapeutic properties such as lowering the intraocular pressure, protecting the nerves, and rendering its antioxidant properties.
There is still conflicting research if CBD will be able to act alone or will need THC as its partner to be able to render all the properties.
Since it attaches itself to the CB1 receptors, THC displays certain psychoactive properties which may cause unwanted side effects with regular use.
Another study shows that CBD in higher amounts, when paired with THC can counter the unwanted THC’s side effects while retaining the therapeutic properties of both the compounds.
While this factor may pose some hope for THC and CBD as possible glaucoma therapy agents, further research will be necessary to arrive at a concrete conclusion.
CBD for treating the symptoms of Glaucoma:
Glaucoma is a serious eye condition marked by nerve damage and subsequent vision loss. The condition starts with fluid build up behind the eye.
Under normal conditions, the eye has the presence of fluid called aqueous humor. This fluid usually drains out through a mesh-like channel. In some cases, this mesh-like channel gets blocked and with no outlet, the fluid starts building up in the eye.
This fluid build-up increases pressure on the optic nerve which is responsible for sending image signals to the brain. With the resultant pressure, the optic nerve starts getting damaged and you can sense a lessening vision.
A completely damaged optic nerve results in total vision loss. Usually, once the reduction in vision starts, deterioration is quite quick, giving you little or no time to consult an ophthalmologist for treatment.
While this condition is most commonly seen in adults over 40, it can occur in people of any age group, including infants and children. This condition can be inherited, meaning it runs in families.
Conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, etc can result in glaucoma. Also, certain medications increase the risk factors for getting glaucoma.
Sometimes an injury in one or both the eyes can cause glaucoma in the long run. If you have thinner corneas or suffer from eye pressure, you may be at risk of getting glaucoma at some point.
Symptoms of Glaucoma:
To understand the symptoms of glaucoma, we must first understand the types of this condition.
Glaucoma is categorized into four types for a general understanding, though there may be even more types from a medical or therapeutic point of view.
This is the most commonly occurring form of glaucoma and is also known as wide-angle glaucoma. The drainage angle remains open, but the mesh is partially blocked, resulting in gradual pressure build-up. This glaucoma takes a long time to completely block your vision.
This glaucoma type doesn’t cause any pain to the eye. You will not notice any vision changes in the initial stages. Regular eye check-ups are crucial to detect and treat the condition early
- Blind spots and patches in the central and peripheral visions in one or both the eyes.
- Tunnel vision occurs in advanced stages.
This condition is also known as chronic angle-closure or narrow-angle glaucoma. As the name suggests, the drain angle or the space between the iris and the cornea becomes too narrow. This blocks the fluid from draining out. This results in a sudden build-up in your eye.
Angle-closure glaucoma is sometimes linked to far-sightedness or cataracts. It is marked by the clouding of the lens in the eye.
- The appearance of halos around lights
- Severe headache
- Nausea and vomitings
- Blurred vision.
- Eye pain
- Eye redness
- Blurred vision
Some doctors consider this as a form of open-angle glaucoma. With this condition, the eye pressure remains normal to average, but can still cause damage to the optic nerve.
While the exact causes of this kind of Glaucoma are not known, symptoms include the appearance of blind spots in the vision.
Pigments from the iris block the drain channels resulting in a pressure build-up on the optic nerve.
- Difficulty with side vision
- Rarely, the appearance of haloes or blurry vision.
Some of the more significant causes of glaucoma such as pressure build-up and nerve damage may be treated with the pressure reducing and the neuroprotective and the antioxidant properties of CBD. These symptoms can include blurry vision, the appearance of halos around light, etc.
Let us look at the role of CBD in treating the common symptoms of CBD which include:
- Eye pain.
CBD for Eye Pain and Headaches:
CBD has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. A study published in Cannabis and Cannabinoid research also states CBD and THC may reduce corneal pain.
According to the same study, THC may reduce pain and inflammation by binding with the CB1 and CB2 receptors. CBD may activate the non-cannabinoid receptors for a reduction in pain and inflammation.
With these properties, CBD and THC may provide relief from symptoms such as redness in the eye, eye pain, and headaches.
CBD for Nausea and Vomitings:
CBD has antiemetic properties. It can suppress nausea and vomitings within a limited dose range according to a study “Regulation of Nausea and Vomitings by Cannabinoids”
With its pressure reducing, neuroprotective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antiemetic properties, CBD may provide relief and to a certain extent treat glaucoma.
Consulting an experienced ophthalmologist who has expertise in CBD is crucial before starting CBD for glaucoma, as you must consider multiple aspects before starting this alternative line of medications.
The presence of THC may prove a hurdle in certain cases. The presence of this cannabinoid along with CBD can prove more effective to treat Glaucoma, than CBD acting alone.
Also, the effectiveness of THC/CBD as compared to the dosages still needs to be established. Further studies are needed to establish the safety of THC to treat Glaucoma when compared with the risk factors.
To sum up, CBD may be effective to treat Glaucoma and its various symptoms. Further investigations and clinical trials will help strengthen the theory.
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